The Chroniclers of Middle-earth

MŚns BjŲrkman

The history of Middle-earth spans over many thousands of years of intriguing history. Through it we get to hear the fascinating tales of Beren and Lķthien, Ešrendil the Mariner, and Bilbo and Frodo Baggins.

But who gave us these stories? Who are the great authors of the lays and annals that professor Tolkien translated into English, recounting this time utterly lost?

Throughout the First, Second and Third age, Elves, Men, and Hobbits have kept records of their history, in form of annals, lays, sagas and biographies. Unlike in many other cultures, the names of many of these "chroniclers" have survived through the centuries. The main reason for this is perhaps that the many authors put out their names on the documents, and even gave credit to their sources. Below I am going to discuss what we know about the greatest chroniclers and their works.


Rumil of Valinor

 Rumil is one of the oldest known of the chroniclers, and appears already in the oldest texts. The meaning of the name is unknown, but it may be connected with the Noldorin word rum: "secret", "mystery" {1}.

Rumil was a Noldo and a sage living in Valinor in the city of Tirion. He was called the Elfsage of Valinor {2} and the Ancient Sage of Tirion {11}, and wrote many documents that especially concerns Valinor. Much of the Eldarin history science seems to have been based on his works. One of his most famous works is the AinulindalŽ that tells of the Music of the Ainur and usually forms the introductory part of the Quenta Silmarillion {3}.

Rumil seems to have abandoned his profession as a sage later (considering the unlikelyness of his death in Valinor), because in the many texts he is often referred to as a long-gone loremaster. There is a work called I Equessi Rumilo ("The Sayings of Rumil") that is a collection of his thoughts from the earliest days of the Eldar in Valinor. It treats, among other things, the Valarin language {11}. The title might imply that he reached a status similar to that of Socrates, and was surrounded with disciples that wrote down his words (like Plato's Dialogues).

Something that signifies Rumil's greatness as a chronicler is that he in the Valian Year 1179 invented an alphabet: Rumil's Tengwar {4}, properly called the Sarati {11}. This is the oldest known alphabet in Arda, and was the one FŽanor was inspired by when he developed FŽanor's Tengwar, which was later used by almost all peoples in Middle-earth.

A document of special interests for historians is the text called the Annals of Aman (or Annals of Valinor). The document retells the events of each year in Valinor up to the creation of the Sun and the Moon and may have been one of the sources to the Quenta Silmarillion. In one manuscript, Rumil is said to be the author of this work. But in another, Rumil merely began it and wrote as far as the Doom of the Noldor in the Valian Year 1496 {4}. There he stopped, and others continued {5}. This may have one of two explanations: 1) He did not follow the house of FŽanor towards Middle-earth, but heard of the adventures of the Noldor who set out from Tuna and came back, or 2) He himself went with the company of Finarfin, and turned back with him when he heard the threatening doom.

Rumil was also interested in languages and had - according to one (unfortunately generally erroneous) source {7} - learnt very many languages. He made some writings that concerned the languages of the Elves, and Pengolodh the Wise (see below) read these texts and used them for one of his works {8}.

When Pengolodh came to Valinor in the middle of the Second Age, Rumil saw his Quenta Silmarillion and made slight additions to it, such as the mentioning of Mandos' and Lorien's real names, Namo and Irmo {9}.

Rumil is not mentioned in any more narrative texts, and it is not known what befell him in later ages. He does not seem to have been on Tol EressŽa, since ∆lfwine, much later, didn't meet him there, but well read his documents. Pengolodh was definitely there, and told ∆lfwine many stories, among them Rumil's AinulindalŽ {10}. It's probable that he stayed in Tirion upon Tuna, and lives there still.

References

{1} HME vol. 1 Appendix
{2} HME vol. 4 The Earliest Annals of Valinor
{3} Sil. Index
{4} HME vol. 10 The Annals of Aman
{5} HME vol. 5 The Later Annals of Valinor
{6} Sil. Of the Flight of the Noldor
{7} HME vol. 1 Music of the Ainur
{8} HME vol. 5 The Lhammas
{9} HME vol. 10 The Later Quenta Silmarillion
{10} HME vol. 10 AinulindalŽ
{11} HME vol. 11 Quendi and Eldar Appendix D


Pengolodh of Gondolin

 Pengolodh is the greatest of the chroniclers of Middle-earth, and the most renown of all. He was born son of a Noldo and a Sinda in Turgon's old realm of Nevrast. Later he followed Turgon's folk and became his sage in Gondolin. He became the most eminent member of the Lambengolmor, "Loremasters of Tounges", a group which FŽanor had founded {9}.

The name Pengolodh is probably derived from the Sindarin words pennas "history" {1} and Golodh "Noldo" {2}, which gives "History-Noldo", i.e. Noldorin historian. The first element might also be pen "person", so producing "Person-Noldo", but this seems less likely {9}. The variations Pengolod and Pengoloth also occurs. He is also in one instance called Thingodhel: Noldorin "Grey Noldo", which probably refers to his mixed Noldorin and Grey-elven ancestry {11}. Pengolodh is probably also identical with Gilfanon in an old text {4}.

At the fall of Gondolin, Pengolodh managed to escape from Morgoth's creatures together with Tuor and Idril, and followed them to the Havens of Sirion {4}. With him he brought a number of valuable old documents and own works. The Havens of Sirion had at this time become a gathering-place for refugees from Doriath, Hithlum and other places throughout Beleriand. Thanks to the silmaril of Ešrendil, a short time of peace was allowed to the refuge. Since Pengolodh had hitherto been prevented from gathering lore outside the borders of Gondolin, he suddenly became very active and made much researching.

Here he gathered information on the runic system used in Doriath, invented by Daeron. These runes were rarely used and would become even more so in coming ages. But Pengolodh made copies and extracts of documents using these characters, and thus made an important cultural contribution, lest the Certhas Daeron (as he called them) would have been totally forgotten {5}.

The Sindar of Doriath had brought the Annals of Beleriand or Grey Annals to the Havens where they were extended with the aid of the other peoples {10}. Pengolodh probably helped in this task, since his memory of the history was "prodigious" {9}. What is certain, though, is that he made additions and comments to it, perhaps in his own annotated copy. The Annals of Beleriand were later brought into the West {10}.

From the end of the First Age of the Sun, the Noldor were allowed to return to the West. Pengolodh, however, did not go to Valinor emmideately. He stayed in Middle-earth, far on into the Second Age, and gathered lore. He was permitted to dwell for awhile with the Dwarves in Khazad-dŻm, and thus was probably one of the few to get insight in the Dwarvish languages: the spoken and the sign languages.

When Sauron's dark shadow grew over Eriador, Pengolodh finally went West, to Tol EressŽa in the Bay of Belegaer. There he stayed in the village of Tavrobel (also called Tathrobel), and continued extending the Annals of Beleriand. At this time he must also have seen Rumil's works on languages, among others the Equessi Rumilo, and these he used to write the text called Lammas ("Account on Tounges"), discussing the languages of Men, Elves and other races {9}. He also wrote a short work called the Lammasethen treating the Elvish languages in especial {6}.

Pengolodh is traditionally given the credit of writing the Quenta Silmarillion, the main work of the oldest history, but what he really did was compiling the many traditions, legends and stories into one, continuous work. His main sources were Rumil's and his own writings (the Annals, AinulindalŽ etc), the Grey Annals, the Narn I ChÓn Hķrin, and the Golden Book {7}. Rumil also made slight additions to the Silmarillion {8}.

When ∆lfwine came to Tol EressŽa many millenia later, he met Pengolodh. Pengolodh told him many of the legends and showed him the texts, and thus became a necessary link between the Elder days and historical times.

Sources:

{1} HME vol. 4 The Quenta
{2} Sil. Appendix
{3} HME vol. 4 The Earliest Annals of Beleriand
{4} HME vol. 4 The Earliest Annals of Valinor
{5} HME vol. 7 Appendix on Runes
{6} HME vol. 5 The Lhammas
{7} HME vol. 5 Quenta Silmarillion
{8} HME vol. 10 The Later Quenta Silmarillion
{9} HME vol. 11 Quendi and Eldar Appendix D
{10} HME vol. 11 The Grey Annals
{11} HME vol. 11 Quendi and Eldar Editorial Notes


Quennar i Onotimo

Not much is known about this mysterious Elf. Though he only wrote three important works, these seem to have affected both Rumil and Pengolodh. His first work, Of the beginning of time and its reckoning, forms the beginning of the Annals of Aman. It contains among other things some information on the reckoning of time in Valinor, which is interesting since the Annals of Aman uses so-called "Valian Years" {1}. For the Annals of Aman Rumil also used much of Quennar's second work, Yenonotie ("Counting of Years"), which also contains material of the counting of time.

Quennar's third work was the Tale of Years. This is closely connected with the Annals of Aman and the Annals of Beleriand, and was in many parts almost identical to these. It is clear that either Quennar read Rumil's and Pengolodh's works, Rumil and Pengolodh read Quennar's, or they read each other's and tried to make them agree. But Quennar actually stopped writing the Tale at the beginning of the First Age of the Sun, and Pengolodh continued {2}. This seems very odd. Why should Quennar stop writing there, and why did Pengolodh continue? Maybe Quennar was killed by the Orcs in the Dagor Nuin-Giliath {4}? Maybe Pengolodh inherited his work? We will probably never know.

No sure translation of the name Quennar i Onotimo has been provided, but it seems to contain the elements quen "tell", narn "tale" {3}, i "the", onot "count", tim-o "of star" {5}; i.e. something like "The tale-teller of the counting of the stars". "Counting of stars" may seem rather strange, but it might be a kenning that refers to the reckoning of time. All this is, of course, mere speculation.

Sources:

{1} HME vol. 10 Annals of Aman
{2} HME vol. 11 The Tale of Years
{3} HME vol. 11 ∆lfwine and Dirhaval
{4} Sil. Of the Return of the Noldor
{5} HME vol. 5 The Etymologies


DŪrhavel

DŪrhavel was a minstrel that only made one lay in all his life, but it became the greatest and the most remembered of all the lays made by Men in later times. It was the Narn I ChÓn Hķrin, the "Tale of the Children of Hķrin".

DŪrhavel (or DŪrhaval) was of the house of Hador, and had probably fled from Dor-lomin when he came to the Havens of Sirion. Because of his ancestry he was very interested in the deeds of his house and searched for information among all the refugees. Thus he met Mablung of Doriath who told him many things about Tķrin Turambar. By luck he also met an old man called AndvŪr. He was a son of Andrůg who had been a member of Tķrin's outlaw-band.

He used the information he had gathered and wrote in Sindarin a very long, in fact the longest of all from that time, lay in the verse-mode called Minlamad thent (or Minlamad estent). This mode was spoken verse, not unlike the Old English alliterative mode. The Narn I ChÓn Hķrin tells of the fates of Hķrin's children Tķrin and Nienor, with emphasis on Tķrin. It is a very tragic story, but the lay was highly praised by the Elves and remembered by them. It is the only full account on Tķrin's life, and all later writings on the subject fall back on this one {1}.

Unfortunately, DŪrhavel was killed when the sons of FŽanor finally attacked the Havens of Sirion in the third and last Kinslaying {2}.

The meaning of the name DŪrhavel is unknown. It seems to contain the elements dir "watch", el "star", but this is too uncertain to make any guessing.

Sources:

{1} HME vol. 11 ∆lfwine and Dirhaval
{2} Sil. Index


∆lfwine of England

The subject on ∆lfwine, the seafarer who found the Straight Road and came to Tol EressŽa, is definitely the most intricate and complicated matter of all the chroniclers. He is also extraordinary in that he is the only one to belong to historical times.

∆lfwine was an Anglo-Saxon, living in Britain during the 10th century. His name is in Old English, and means "Elf-friend", not a very uncommon name at this time. He was a long way descendant of Ešrendil, and had, like all of Ešrendil's descendants, sea-longing in his blood {1}.

There are actually two very distinct versions of the ∆lfwine legend. The first sets him in 11th century Wessex, but this version of the story seems to have been very mingled with vocal tradition, since it gives the origin of Warwick as originally built by Elves (who called it Kortirion in memory of Kortirion on Tol EressŽa) {2}. I hold this as almost definitely impossible for these reasons: Under the First, Second, and Third Age we hear of no city called Kortirion in Middle-earth. At the beginning of the Fourth Age the few remaining Elves were dwindling, and I find it unlikely that any Elves would build a large city at this time.

All the same, the first version is highly detailed and is therefore worth recounting: ∆lfwine lived in Warwick in Luthany (that is England) and was of the kin of Ing. His father was the minstrel Deor and his mother Eadgifu. While ∆lfwine was still very young, Warwick was attacked by Vikings from the north. Deor and Eadgifu were slain, and ∆lfwine became a thrall under the Viking Orm.

After many years of service, ∆lfwine escaped and managed to get to the west coast of England. There he lived with sailors for many years, until he was grown up. During this time he learned to sail, and often went far out into the ocean. On one of these journeys he saw islands far off in the west, but the wind drove him back to his home.

Knowing there were uncharted islands in the west, he went off with seven companions (of which only ∆lfheah and Gelimer are named). During a stormy night the ship wrecked and the next morning ∆lfwine found himself alone on a beach. He had been cast ashore on one of the Harbourless Isles.

He soon found he was alone on the island, except for an "ancient" man who had been wrecked on the island long ago and who called himself the Man of the Sea. ∆lfwine spent a long time on the island and learned much from the old man. One morning they found another ship was wrecked on the island - Orm the Viking's ship. None of the Vikings had survived, and ∆lfwine and the Man of the Sea set out with the ship.

After a long journey west they came to the solitaire island Eneadur, inhabited by a great seafaring people called Ythlings. On this island ∆lfwine found his seven companions alive and well. The Ythlings seemed to know the Man of the Sea, who ordered them to build a new ship for ∆lfwine and his companions. At the day of departure, the old man blessed the ship, and then went to a high cliff and dived into the ocean. ∆lfwine was grieved of what he thought to be the old man's certain death, but the Ythlings only smiled.

Joined by an Ythling called Bior, the eight companions set out west again. After a very long and weary journey they passed the Magic Isles, where they lost three members of their crew in a spell of sleep. On a misty day, the air felt full of a strange fragrance, and suddenly the mists drove away and they saw before them the Lonely Isle - Tol EressŽa.

But then the wind turned, the mists came back and the vision disappeared. ∆lfwine stood long at the rear, and then with a cry he jumped into the ocean as the ship drifted back east {2}.

This version of the legend ends here. This may indicate that it was originally written by one of ∆lfwines companions. But it must have become very corrupted through the ages, and is perhaps not at all reliable. It is especially noticable that the ship was never said to leave the surface of the sea.

The other version of the story seems more reliable, partly because it has quite many historical references.

∆lfwine was a sailor and a minstrel in the service of king Eadweard's thegn Odda. He was called WŪdlŠst ("Fartravelled") and his father was …adwine, son of ”swine. He was apparently born around 869 A.D.

When ∆lfwine was nine years old (878 A.D.), his father sailed off with his ship …arendel and never returned. Because of the attacks of the Danes, ∆lfwine's mother (not named) fled with him from Somerset, where they lived, to the West Wales, where she had her kindred.

Having grown up to full manhood and learned the Welsh language and much sea-craft he returned to Somerset to serve the King in the wars. In the service of Odda he sailed many seas and visited both Wales and Ireland many times. On his journeys he always sought tales of the sea, and thus came to hear the Irish legends of Maelduin and Saint Brendan, who both set out to sea, and came to "many islands in succession, where they encountered marvel upon marvel" {3}. He heard also of a great land in the west which had been cast down, and the survivors had settled on Ireland and dwindled there. And the successors of these men all had the sea-longing in their blood, so that many sailed off west and never returned. ∆lfwine thought he might be one of these descendants.

Around the year 915, in autumn, the Danes attacked Porlock. They were at first driven off and ∆lfwine's company managed to capture a Danish cnearr (a small ship) at night. ∆lfwine's closest friend was Trťowine of the Marches. At dawn ∆lfwine told Trťowine he intended to sail off, perhaps to the country of the legendary king Sheaf {10} in the west. This he had long planned and had prepared a supply of food and water. Trťowine agreed to accompany him at least as far as to Ireland. They got two other companions: Ceola of Somerset and Geraint of West Wales. Then they sailed off.

They sailed west and passed Ireland, and after many days the voyagers were exhausted. A "dreamlike death" seemed to come over them, and soon they passed out. The last that is known of the journey is that Trťowine saw the world plunge down under them. They had entered the Straight Road {1, 3}.

It is uncertain what happened to ∆lfwine's companions after they fainted. Indeed, it is uncertain how many that followed him all the way to the Straight Road. That Trťowine was there is known, because he is mentioned (but even he disappears from context at this point). The others may have left in Ireland or (as one version says) jumped overboard when the ship rose from the surface of the sea {3}.

In any case, when ∆lfwine woke up, he found himself lying on a beach and a group of Elves pulling up his ship on the shore {3}. He had come to Tol EressŽa. He soon got aquainted with the Noldor that lived on the island, and gained the name Eriol, which means "One who dreams alone" (it has also been interpreted as "Iron-cliffs") {4}. He learned the islanders' language, Noldorin, and after a period went inland.

Soon he had come to a village called Tavrobel, where he stayed for a long time. In this village also lived Pengolodh, and ∆lfwine learned much from him. Pengolodh told him the AinulindalŽ {5}, and he was shown the Lammas {6}, the Quenta Silmarillion, the Golden Book {7}, The Narn I ChÓn Hķrin {9}, and the Annals of Aman and Beleriand {8}. ∆lfwine learned much of these works by heart, and translated the Silmarillion, the Annals and the Narn into Old English (mostly after his return to Britain), giving explanations on the many names {7,9}.

It is not known how long ∆lfwine stayed on Tol EressŽa, but it can be safely assumed he stayed there for many years. Eventually he returned to Britain, but what there befell him is not known. It is clear, though, that he continued translating the works that he had received or learned, and that Professor Tolkien used much of his works in his translations {5}.

Sources:

{1} HME vol. 9 The Notion Club Papers (part two)
{2} HME vol. 2 The History of Eriol or ∆lfwine
{3} HME vol. 5 The Lost Road
{4} HME vol. 1 Appendix
{5} HME vol. 10 AinulindalŽ
{6} HME vol. 5 Part two: The Lhammas
{7} HME vol. 5 Part two: Quenta Silmarillion
{8} HME vol. 4 The Earliest Annals of Valinor
{9} HME vol. 11 ∆lfwine and Dirhaval
{10} Beowulf stanza 1 - 58


The Red Book and its Authors

This part does not refer to any specific chronicler, but concerns the tradition of the Red Book which is the most important source for the history of the Third Age. The Red Book consists of several parts, for which the most important contributors were Bilbo and Frodo Baggins, and Sam Gamgee.

After Bilbo Baggins returned from the quest of Erebor, he started writing a diary about his adventures. When, at the eminent age of 111, he went to Rivendell, he took this diary with him, and continued writing. He now probably wrote a lot of poems, some which were written in the margins of the diary or on loose pages {1}. In Rivendell he also became occupied with translating a lot of Elvish Books of Lore (1403-1418 TA). For this he used all resources available there, and they were many. Except for the many texts he also had direct access to people who spoke the old languages. The result was three thick volumes in red leather called Translations from the Elvish. This work was considered well done even by the Elves.

After the War of the Ring, Frodo Baggins brought the three volumes and the diary back to the Shire and started (1420-1 TA) adding his own account of the war, which was seen as a continuation of Bilbo's adventure {2}. When Frodo went to the Grey Havens he had almost finished the account, and gave the book to Sam Gamgee for him to finish it. It then had 80 chapters, and the title-page was full of suggestions for a name. First, Bilbo had written:

    My Diary. My Unexpected Journey. There and Back Again. And What Happened After. Adventures of Five Hobbits. The Tale of the Great Ring, compiled by Bilbo Baggins from his own observations and the account of his friends. What we did in the War of the Ring.

But these had all been crossed out. Below, Frodo had written:

    THE DOWNFALL
    OF THE
    LORD OF THE RINGS
    AND THE
    RETURN OF THE KING

    (as seen by the Little People; being the memoirs of Bilbo and Frodo of the Shire, supplemented by the accounts of their friends and the learning of the Wise.)

    Together with extracts from Books of Lore translated by Bilbo in Rivendell. {3}

Sam Gamgee had probably finished the account when he, in the year 60 of the Fourth Age, went to the havens. He then gave the books to his daughter Elanor {4}.

From then on the books were kept by the descendants of Elanor, the Fairbairns of the Undertowers who lived in the Westmarch, an area recently added to the Shire. The assembled books were therefore called the Red Book of Westmarch, and a fifth volume was added. It contained commentaries, genealogies, and various other things concerning the Hobbits of the Nine Walkers{2}.

The first copy that was made of the Red Book was the so-called Thain's Book. It was a copy made at the request of king Elessar, and its importance lay in the respect that it contained much that was later later lost or omitted. Later in Gondor, this copy was much annotated and many names and quotes were corrected. Added was also (much later) The Tale of Aragorn and Arwen, i.e. those parts not present in the Red Book narrative.

The second copy was made by Findegil, the King's Writer of Gondor, and was the most important one for the scribes. It was an exact copy of the Thain's Book that was kept in Gondor. These two volumes were the only ones to contain everything from the original, plus the Gondorian annotations. In addition, in the Thain's Book the Translations from the Elvish had not been included, and these were added to the second copy. The copy was ordered by Peregrin Took's greatgrandson and when finished in 172 FA in Gondor it was kept at the Great Smials.

Apart from these, many other copies were made for Sam Gamgee's descendants. To these copies was also later added many notes, commentaries and poems {1}. The original Red Book was lost, but the copies remained. These were professor Tolkien's main source to his accounts of the War of the Ring. However, when he published the first editions, he hadn't found all the correct accounts, or hadn't used them. For instance, in his earliest texts about Bilbo's adventure in the Misty Mountains, the story originated from a version of the Red Book where Bilbo's "lie" was printed: that he was promised a present by Gollum, but since Gollum couldn't give the Ring to Bilbo, he was shown the way out instead. In reality, Bilbo was never offered the Ring {2}. Another example is Frodo's salute to Gildor Inglorion. Some versions of the Red Book claim that it was "Elen sila lumenn' omentielmo", and so it was printed at first. But the correct salute should end "-elvo", and this was later changed. However, it is possible Frodo actually used the erroneous phrase.

Sources:

{1} The Adventures of Tom Bombadil: Prologue
{2} LOTR vol. 1 Prologue
{3} LOTR vol. 3 The Grey Havens
{4} LOTR vol. 3 Appendix B


The Books of Lore

This section treats a number of works only passingly referred to, but which seems to have some importance.

The Book of the Kings was a record kept in Gondor. Frodo Baggins and Peregrin Took were allowed to see it, and Tolkien probably used it in his translations {1}. The evil queen Beruthiel had the honour of being erased from its pages {2}.

The Book of the Stewards was a record, probably similar to the Book of the Kings. Frodo Baggins and Peregrin Took were allowed to see it {1}.

Dorgannas Iaur is an account of "the shapes of the lands of old". It was written by Torhir Ifant, and ∆lfwine cites it in his translation of the Silmarillion to clarify the placing of the realms of Beleriand {3}. The above quote is the only explanation of the title. Dor means "land" and iaur means "old" {4}, so we have to assume gannas means "shape".

Parma Kuluina, or the Golden Book, was a book of lore that was kept in the city of Kortirion in Tol EressŽa. Pengolodh used it when making the Quenta Silmarillion, and ∆lfwine was allowed to see it {5}.

Quentale Ardanomion is a work that treats the Dwarves; nothing more is known about it. ∆lfwine used this in his account on the Dwarves in his translation of the Silmarillion {3}. Quentale probably means something like "Great tale". Ardanomion means "Of the [?]s of the World" (the Quenya element nom is not known).

Sources:

{1} UT Cirion and Eorl
{2} UT The Istari
{3} HME vol. 11 The Later Quenta Silmarillion
{4} Sil. Index
{5} HME vol. 5 Quenta Silmarillion


Chart over the Transmission of the Legends


" " = Important works
( ) = Translations
 > = Flows

                                       Quennar i Onotimo
                                   "Of the Beginning of Time..."
                                         "Yenonotie"
                                     "The Tale of Years"
               Rumil                         |          "Golden Book"
           "Annals of Aman"--------------------"Quenta Silmarillion"-----------+------->-----+
                 |                     |             |
                 |                 Numenor      Rivendell
                 |                     |     "Books of Lore"
                 |                     |             |
                 |                     |             |
                 |                 Arnor and         |
                 |                   Gondor          |         Bilbo Baggins
                 |             "Book of the Kings"  |           "My Diary"
                 |           "Book of the Stewards" +--"Translations from the Elvish"
                 |                     |                             |
   "Quentale     |   Torhir Ifant      |                             |            Frodo Baggins
   Ardanomion"   | "Dorgannas Iaur"    |                             |              Sam Gamgee
       |        |       |             |                             |        "The War of the Ring"
       |        |       |             |                             |                  |
       |        |       |             |                             "The Red Book of Westmarch"
       |        |       |             |             Findegil                   |
       |        |       |             |---->----"The Thain's Book"-------------------|
         ("Annals of Aman")            |                                         |          ("Grey Annals")             |                                          |
                 |                     |                                         |
                 +-------->------------|-------------------------



ETEP

The Tolkien Encyclopedia

The Encyclopedia of Middle-earth



Hypertextual System by FMI Publishing, 1995